Ocean contains rich variety of organisms, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine ecosystem. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with
thousands of natural products and patents associated with genes of marine organisms, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no
longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The aim of this research was to have an
overview of ocean genetic resources and the conservation of marine biodiversity. Doctrinal research methodology was adopted in this research work. Amongst others the research found that there are factors affecting ocean genetic resources and the conservation of marine biodiversity including but not limited to
species extinction, loss of population and invasive species. The research further looked at the benefits, risk and challenges to the
conservation of the ocean genetic resources. Far reaching recommendations has equally been made, which its implementation will go a long way in the conservation of the marine genetic resources.