THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM LAND-BASED POLLUTION AND ACTIVITIES: EXAMINING THE GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GOVERNANCE

Abstract
The challenge of land-based pollution has constituted serious threat to the marine environment. The practice of discharging untreated sewage where about ninety percent of discharged sewage may go directly into the
rivers as well as coastal waters without any treatment is common. This practice is very common in developing countries. Excessive algal blooms and nutrient over-enrichment have been as result of nitrogen from fertilizer run-off, fossil-fuel burning, human as well as animal wastes. United Nations Environment Programme adopted the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) on the 3rd day of November, 1995 by the
Intergovernmental Conference which met for that purpose in Washington, D.C., from 23rd October to 3rd November 1995. The adoption was needful for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities as a result of threats such activities pose to the
health and productivity and biodiversity of the marine environment. It is recommended in this paper that Nigeria should embark on a robust
national programme of action in order to give effect to the laudable provisions of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the
Marine Environment from Land-based Activities. Regional programme of action also need to be established for the effective implementation of this Global Programme of Action. In addition, government needs to integrate laws and policies so as to come up with an integrated legislative framework that will regulate and ensure the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities.

Key words: Protection, Land-based Pollution, Marine Environment.

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